Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm and cause of cancer-related deaths in men and eighth in women. Patients with bladder cancer undergo repeated cystoscopic examinations of the bladder to monitor for tumour recurrence which is invasive, costly and lacks accuracy. Therefore, the development of non-invasive urine based tests for the early detection of bladder cancer would be of tremendous benefit to both patients and healthcare systems. A number of urine based markers are available for the early diagnosis of bladder cancer. The diagnosis of bladder cancer relies on identifying malignant cells in the urine. All urinary markers have a higher sensitivity as compared with cytology but they score lower in specificity. Many soluble and cell based markers have been developed. Only two of the soluble and cell based markers have obtained the Food and Drug Administration approval. In the current review, the most recent literature of urinary markers is summarised. This article reports some of the more prominent urine markers and new technologies used nowadays.
- Bladder cancer
- cell based urine markers
- non-invasive urine based test
- soluble urine markers, tumour markers, urinary tract tumours, urine
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Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.