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Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms and related precursor lesions


Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of tumours showing different clinicopathological features and behaviour, implying a wide spectrum of therapeutic options. They are currently classified using the 2010 WHO classification of digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms into G1-neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), G2-NETs, neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs). However, most gastric NENs are composed of ECL-cells (ECL-cell NETs) that can be preceded by ECL-cell hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions, whose oncologic potential has not yet been completely elucidated. ECL-cell NETs differ considerably in terms of prognosis depending on the proliferative status and clinicopathological background. The integration of both aspects in the diagnostic pathway may help to better classify tumours in different prognostic categories, especially when diagnosing them in small bioptic specimens. NECs are all poorly differentiated, highly aggressive carcinomas, while MANECs can show different morphological features that are directly associated with different prognoses. Precursor lesions of such carcinomas are not entirely understood. In this review, the clinicopathological features of gastric NENs and related precursor lesions will be described to give the reader a comprehensive overview on this topic.


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