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Angiogenesis in melanoma: an update with a focus on current targeted therapies
  1. George Jour,
  2. Doina Ivan,
  3. Phyu P Aung
  1. Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Phyu P Aung, Department of Pathology, Unit 0085, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA; paung{at}


Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in melanoma metastasis and progression. In recent years, numerous studies have investigated the prognostic and clinical significance of this phenomenon, and the development of molecular techniques has enabled us to achieve a better understanding of angiogenesis in melanoma. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge regarding angiogenesis in melanoma, including the pathophysiological, histological and immunohistochemical aspects of this phenomenon. We also review the molecular pathways involved in angiogenesis and the interplay between different components that might be manipulated in the future development of efficient targeted therapies. Recently developed targeted antiangiogenic therapies in clinical trials and included in the treatment of advanced-stage melanoma are also reviewed.


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