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Contributors All authors have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Competing interests LDW has received honoraria from and served on advisory boards for Medtronic, Bbraun and Codman. Other authors have no competing interests to declare.
Patient consent Not required.
Ethics approval All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Ethic committee approval was not required for this type of study.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
Presented at Portions of this work were presented in abstract form at the Hydrocephalus 2017 International Society for Hydrocephalus and Cerebrospinal Fluid Disorders Conference, Kobe, Japan, September 2017.
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