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Expression pattern and prognostic significance of myosin light chain 9 (MYL9): a novel biomarker in glioblastoma
  1. Banavathy S Kruthika1,
  2. Harsha Sugur1,
  3. Kanuri Nandaki1,
  4. Arivazhagan Arimappamagan2,
  5. Kondaiah Paturu3,
  6. Vani Santosh1
  1. 1 Neuropathology, National Institute Of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  2. 2 Neurosurgery, National Institute Of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  3. 3 Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  1. Correspondence to Professor Vani Santosh, Neuropathology, National Institute Of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore 560029, Karnataka, India; vani.santosh{at}


Aims Tumour recurrence is inevitable in glioblastoma (GBM) and mostly noted in the peritumoural brain zone (PT). In our previous microarray-based study, we identified Myosin Light Chain 9 (MYL9) as a highly expressed gene in the PT of GBM. Therefore, we aimed to study the expression pattern and clinical significance of MYL9 in GBM.

Methods Patient samples included three retrospective cohorts: 25 GBM cases with differential biopsies of tumour core and PT, 62 retrospective cases of newly diagnosed GBM with survival information and 20 paired samples (newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM). All tumour tissues, archived as formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks were retrieved and immunohistochemistry for MYL9 and IDH1 R132H was performed. MYL9 expression was correlated with patient prognosis in our cohort and in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Rembrandt cohorts. It was further evaluated in the 20 paired samples of GBM.

Results MYL9 showed a cytoplasmic membranous staining of tumour cells. The staining pattern was variable and patchy within tumours. Higher MYL9 expression was associated with poor overall and progression-free survival in our and in TCGA and Rembrandt cohorts. The expression of MYL9 was higher in IDH1 R132H immunonegative cases.

Conclusions We show MYL9 as a novel biomarker, variably expressed in GBM. The association of high MYL9 expression with poor prognosis in newly diagnosed GBM patients and increased expression in recurrent GBM is indicative of its role in conferring tumour aggressiveness.

  • glioblastoma
  • MYL9
  • prognosis
  • recurrence
  • peritumoural brain zone

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  • Handling editor Prof Dhirendra Govender.

  • Contributors All authors included on this paper fulfil the criteria of authorship. There is no one else who fulfils the criteria who has been excluded as an author.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests No, there are no competing interests for any author.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.