The Glioma-associated homologue-1 (GLI-1) gene was first discovered to be amplified in glioblastoma multiforme. It encodes for a zinc-finger transcription factor in the Kruppel family of proteins and is important in the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway. GLI-1 also plays a role in several other pathways and is important for proliferation, migration, invasion, growth and angioinvasion, and cancer stem cell self-renewal in a variety of malignancies. GLI-1 is amplified in several malignancies, including an epithelioid, pericytomatous soft tissue neoplasm that can exhibit malignant behaviour. More recently, GLI-1 fusions with other partner genes have been found in three rare tumours: a pericytomatous tumour with a t(7;12) translocation, where it partners with Actin beta 1, and gastroblastoma and plexiform fibromyxoma, where the partner gene is metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, respectively.
- cancer genetics
- gene amplification
- molecular pathology
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