Longstanding inflammatory bowel disease (especially in patients with severely active disease or primary sclerosing cholangitis) is associated with an increased risk of developing dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This review covers critical clinical aspects, such as risk factors and screening endoscopy basics, emphasising the SCENIC (Surveillance for Colorectal Endoscopic Neoplasia Detection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease International Consensus) guidelines. The histopathological and molecular features of both conventional (adenomatous) dysplasia and the non-conventional subtypes (hypermucinous dysplasia, goblet cell-deficient dysplasia, crypt cell dysplasia, serrated dysplasias) are discussed with an emphasis on challenging diagnostic areas and helpful tips to allow correct categorisation by the practising pathologist.
- inflammatory bowel diseases
- colorectal neoplasms
- diagnostic screening programs
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Handling editor Runjan Chetty.
Contributors ZA: writing and review of paper. KS: writing, review of paper, editing of images.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.