This article reviews the main molecular alterations involved in Endometrial Carcinoma. Five molecular features (microsatellite instability, and mutations in the PTEN, k-RAS, PIK3CA, and beta-catenin genes) are characteristic of Endometrioid Carcinomas, whereas Non-Endometrioid Carcinomas show alterations of p53, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on several chromosomes, as well as other molecular alterations (STK15, p16, E-cadherin and C-erb B2). The review also covers the phenomenon of apoptosis resistance, as well as the results obtained from cDNA array studies, and the perspectives for targeted therapies. Finally, a group of practical applications of molecular pathology techniques are also mentioned. These include: 1) Diagnosis of Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer syndrome in patients with endometrial carcinoma, 2) evaluation of precursor lesions, 3) Prognosis, 4) Diagnosis, particularly for synchronous endometrioid carcinomas of the uterus and the ovaries, and 5) Targeted therapies.
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