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Diagnostic immunohistochemistry in gynaecological neoplasia: a brief survey of the most common scenarios
  1. Elisabetta Kuhn1,2,3,
  2. Ayse Ayhan4,5
  1. 1 Pathology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova–IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy
  2. 2 Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
  3. 3 Laboratory of Technology for Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
  4. 4 Departments of Pathology, Hamamatsu and Hiroshima Universities Schools of Medicine, Seirei Mikatahara Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan
  5. 5 Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Elisabetta Kuhn, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine and Laboratory of Technology for Advanced Therapies Centre, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44121, Italy; elisabettakuhn{at} and Professor Ayse Ayhan, Department of Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama 1-20-1, 431-3192 Hamamatsu, Japan; ayseayhanjp{at}


Immunohistochemistry is a valuable adjunct in routine gynaecological pathology. The molecular revolution has redesigned knowledge of gynaecological cancers and refined histological classification. The direct consequence has been the progressive introduction of new immunostainings for diagnostic and classification purposes. Hence, we review the routine diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry in the field of gynaecological neoplasia. We reviewed the immunomarkers useful in gynaecological pathology according to literature revision, our personal experience and research findings. We discuss the application of immunohistochemistry to reach the most accurate diagnosis in morphologically equivocal cases of gynaecological pathology and present the appropriate panel of immunomarkers in the most common scenarios of gynaecological pathology. This short review provides an updated overview of the essential immunohistochemical markers currently used in the diagnostics of gynaecological malignancies along with their molecular rationale.

  • immunohistochemistry
  • ovarian tumour
  • gynaecological pathology
  • diagnostics
  • diagnosis

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  • EK and AA contributed equally.

  • Handling editor Dhirendra Govender

  • Contributors EK and AA contributed equally to this manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published Online First. The corresponding details has been updated to include Prof Ayse Ayhan.

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