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Significant ketoacidosis at autopsy: a single-centre systematic review

Abstract

Aim To examine the value of vitreous beta-hydroxybutyrate and serum acetone in the investigation of sudden unexpected death.

Methods Coroners’ autopsy reports from a provincial UK city, with a population of approximately 900 000, over a 24-month period with significant ketoacidosis were studied. Demographic features, medical history, anatomical and histological findings, and biochemical parameters, including renal function, vitreous glucose, serum and vitreous alcohol, were analysed.

Results Forty-two cases (28 males and 14 females) were identified; 55% had a history of alcohol and/or substance misuse, and mental health problems, particularly depression and anxiety, and 16% were diabetic. In all, 50% of subjects had alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA), 19% had diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and 12% had a history of both diabetes and alcohol abuse. In 19% of cases, an exact cause of ketoacidosis was established. In AKA, the subjects typically had low vitreous glucose and low or undetected blood alcohol levels. All of the subjects with raised vitreous glucose levels had DKA.

Conclusion Ketoacidosis is relatively common and should be considered as a cause of sudden death, especially in alcoholic patients and patients with diabetes with no clear cause of death at autopsy.

  • biochemistry
  • alcohol drinking
  • death
  • sudden
  • cardiac
  • diabetes mellitus

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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