Aim To apply thrombin generation assay (TGA) in a large cohort of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-positive patients.
Material and methods 108 patients were tested with TGA and lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing and divided according to their aPL profile. Briefly, 21 patients were positive for anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS)/prothrombin (PT) IgG/IgM (group1), 29 for anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I (aβ2GPI) and anti-cardiolipin (aCL) IgG/IgM (group2), 31 for aPS/PT, aβ2GPI and aCL IgG/IgM (group3), 27 for aPS/PT and/or aβ2GPI+aCL IgM at low-titres (group4). 31 healthy donors (HDs) and 24 controls treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) were included.
Results The most deranged TGA and LA profiles were observed in tetra-positive patients (group3) that differed significantly to the other groups, thus those with isolated, double or triple aPL-positivity. Moreover, when comparing the TGA profile of all antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients, aPL-carriers, HDs and VKA controls, we observed that the aPL+ patients (especially APS) showed a distinctive profile that allowed to distinguish them from the other groups with significantly higher tLag and tPeak, and lower Peak and area under the curve.
When focusing on APS clinical manifestations, patients with a high-risk profile (group3) showed significant differences from those presenting low-titres aPL (group 4) regarding the number of venous events (p=0.04), recurrence of any thrombotic event (p=0.01), of arterial events (5 vs 0, p=0.02), the occurrence of TIA (p=0.04), DVT (p=0.02) and, when analysing extracriteria manifestations, of peripheral artery disease (p=0.04).
Conclusions TGA seems a valuable approach to stratify aPL+ patients according to their risk profile. The differences among different populations of autoantibodies specificities could be considered a translational validation of the increased thrombotic risk of patients with triple or tetra aPL-positivity.
- Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
Data availability statement
Data are available on reasonable request.
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Handling editor Tahir S Pillay.
MR and AB contributed equally.
EM and SS contributed equally.
Contributors MR, AB, SGF, IC and ER: significantly contributed to laboratory testing, patients recruitment, drafting of the manuscript and of figures and tables, critical analysis of the final draft of the manuscript. DR, EM and SS: significantly contributed to the manuscript preparation, critical analysis of the figures and tables and final drafting of the manuscript. SS is the guarantor for this paper.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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