Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide and tumour stage is closely related to clinical outcome. A small but significant proportion of submucosal-invasive (ie, pT1) CRC are associated with regional lymph node metastases (LNM) and a worse prognosis. The likelihood of LNM in pT1 CRC needs to be balanced against the operative risk and costs of surgical resection when determining the best patient management. A wide range of histopathological and clinical factors may affect LNM risk in this setting. This script provides a comprehensive overview of the tumour and patient-associated features that have been linked to LNM risk in pT1 CRC. Some of the features are well established within the literature and are included in published guidelines, while others are novel and emerging in nature. Odds ratios for LNM that are associated with key predictive features are provided where appropriate, and published models developed as an aid to the calculation of LNM risk are discussed.
- colorectal neoplasms
- lymph nodes
- neoplasm metastasis
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Handling editor Vikram Deshpande.
Contributors Both authors have contributed equally to the preparation of this manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.