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S100 protein is commonly expressed in neuroendocrine tumours of major and minor ampulla
  1. Alessandro Vanoli1,2,
  2. Frediano Inzani1,2,
  3. Paola Parente3,
  4. Luca Albarello4,
  5. Matteo Fassan5,6,
  6. Federica Grillo7,8,
  7. Alessia Messina1,2,
  8. Angela Carlino9,
  9. Silvia Uccella10,11,
  10. Paola Spaggiari11,
  11. Stefano La Rosa12,13,
  12. Guido Rindi14,15,16
  1. 1Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
  2. 2Anatomic Pathology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
  3. 3Unit of Pathology, Fondazione Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
  4. 4Department of Pathology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
  5. 5Surgical Pathology Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padua, Padua, Italy
  6. 6Veneto Oncology Institute, Padua, Italy
  7. 7Anatomic Pathology, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics (DISC), Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy
  8. 8Anatomic Pathology, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
  9. 9Department of Medicine and Surgery, UniCamillus, Rome, Italy
  10. 10Pathology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milano, Italy
  11. 11Pathology Service, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milano, Italy
  12. 12Unit of Pathology, Department of Medicine and Technological Innovation, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
  13. 13Unit of Pathology, Department of Oncology, ASST Sette Laghi, Varese, Italy
  14. 14Section of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Life Sciences and Public Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy
  15. 15Unit of Head and Neck, Thoracic and Endocrine Pathology, Department of Woman and Child Health and Public Health, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy
  16. 16European Neuro-Endocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Center of Excellence, Rome, Itay
  1. Correspondence to Dr Frediano Inzani, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; frediano.inzani{at}

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Recently, Pepper et al investigated the expression of the S100 protein in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).1 They found a significantly higher rate of S100 expression (58%) in pancreatic NETs in comparison with NETs from other primary sites (14%) and a high specificity (94%) of moderate to strong (score 2+/3+) expression of S100 protein to indicate a pancreatic origin of a NET. Concurrently but independently of Pepper et al’s study, we observed the expression of the S100 protein in some NETs of the ampullary region, which had not been investigated in the aforementioned study. Consequently, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of S100 expression in 28 well-differentiated ampullary NETs (23 cases from the major ampulla and 5 cases from the minor papilla/ampulla), which were included in previously published multicentre studies on ampullary NETs2 3 and had available tumour tissue sections. Immunohistochemistry was performed …

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  • Handling editor Yoh Zen.

  • Contributors Conception—AV, FI, SLR and GR. Data collection—AM and AC. Histological review—AV, FI, PP, LA, FG and SU. Immunohistochemical evaluation—AV, FI, PP, LA and PS. Interpretation—AV, FI, FG and MF. Manuscript writing (first draft)—AV, FI and GR. Manuscript writing (review and editing)—SLR, FG, SU and MF. Supervision—AV, FI and GR. Guarantor—FI.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.