Table 2

TNM staging for lung carcinoma

Important tumour information for lung cancer staging
Tumour size (cm)
Distance of tumour from carina (determined by surgeon)
Is the visceral pleura affected?
Is there a pleural effusion?
Does the background lung show atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis and what is the extent?
Which lymph nodes are affected by tumour?
Features of primary tumour (T)
TITumour less than 3 cm, surrounded by lung or unaffected pleura, no atelectasis, obstructive pneumonitis, or extension proximal to a lobar bronchial orifice
T2Tumour greater than 3 cm, or any size if there is disease in visceral pleura, atelectasis, or obstructive pneumonitis extending to the hilum. Proximal margin of tumour must be > 2 cm from carina. Any atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis must involve less than the entire lung
T3Tumour of any size that directly involves the chest wall, diaphragm, or mediastinum. Proximal margin of tumour < 2 cm from carina
T4Tumour of any size with invasion of mediastinum, or involving heart great vessels, trachea, oesophagus, vertebral body, carina, or malignant effusion
Extent of regional lymph nodes
N0No metastasis to regional lymph nodes
N1Metastasis to lymph nodes in the peribronchial oripsilateral hilar, or both
N2Metastasis to ipsilateral mediastinal or subcarinal lymph nodes
N3Metastasis to contralateral mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral scalene, or supraclavicular lymph nodes
Distant metastases
M0No distant metastases
M1Distant metastases present