Table 1

Maternal characteristics

Group 1Group 2Group 3Group 4
Values are mean (SEM).
Group 1, mothers with poorly controlled diabetes and macrosomic newborns.
Group 2, mothers with well controlled diabetes and appropriate for gestational age newborns.
Group 3, healthy mothers with macrosomic newborns.
Group 4, healthy mothers with appropriate for gestational age newborns.
Values within a row with different numbers of asterisks are significantly different, p < 0.05.
Number of subjects20201830
Age (years)25.0 (1.5)24.0 (1.6)25.0 (1.8)25.0 (1.3)
BMI (kg/m2)22.4 (1.9)22.1 (1.6)22.8 (1.7)21.8 (2.3)
Weight gain (kg)11.8 (0.8)9.8 (0.7)12.0 (0.9)10.5 (0.6)
Parity2.0 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)
Hb A1 (%)8.9 (0.3)*6.3 (0.4)**6.0 (0.3)**5.8 (0.2)**
Glucose (mmol/l)8.7 (0.4)*5.2 (0.1)**4.8 (0.2)**4.9 (0.2)**
Birth weight (g)4650 (90)*3616 (98)**4555 (86)*3290 (45)**
Gestational age (weeks)38.5 (0.3)39.5 (0.6)39.0 (0.5)39.5 (0.8)
Cord insulin (mU/l)40.02 (1.62)*12.23 (1.39)**10.65 (1.09)**10.38 (1.11)**