Table 1

The American Rheumatology Association (ARA) criteria

ARA criteria 1982 (updated 1997)Detail
ACA, anticardiolipin antibody; ANA, antinuclear antigen; dsDNA, double stranded DNA; FP VDRL, false positive venereal disease reference laboratory test; IIF, immunofluorescence; LA, lupus anticoagulant.
PhotosensitivityPhotosensitive skin rash
Malar rashFlat or raised fixed erythema
Discoid rashRaised with plugging/scarring/scaling
Oral ulcersUsually painless
ArthritisNon-erosive, 2+ peripheral joints
SerositisPleural or cardiac
Renal disorderProteinuria or cellular casts
Neurological disorderConvulsions or psychosis without other cause
Haematological disorderHaemolysis, cytopenia
“Immunological disorder” (modified 1997)Anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, antiphospholipid antibodies (ACAs, LA, or FP VDRL)
Antinuclear antibody (ANA)“Abnormal titre” ANA at any time point by IIF or equivalent assay