Table 2

The various changes occurring with progression from normal bronchial mucosa to invasive carcinoma in central bronchial carcinogenesis

NormalSquamous metaplasiaLow grade dysplasiaHigh grade dysplasiaCarcinoma in situInvasive carcinoma
Normal refers to morphologically normal epithelium in cigarette smokers. Data summarised from discussion in text and references.
LOH, loss of heterozygosity.
3p LOH++++++++++++
9p LOH++++++++++++
p53 overexpression++++++++++++
Rb expression++++++++++++
Cyclin D1 overexpression++++++
Telomerase overexpression+++++++
bcl-2 overexpression++++++
p53 mutation+++
p16 loss+++
FHIT loss++++++
13q and 17p LOH+++++++
5p and 5q LOH+