Table 2

Sample types other than faeces that can be tested and the parasites that can be detected

SpecimenParasite
*The aspiration of cysts is hazardous and specialist advice should be sought regarding the management of hydatid cysts.
Adhesive tape slides Enterobius vermicularis
Duodenal aspiratesGiardia lamblia trophozoites, Strongyloides larvae
Jejunal aspirates/biopsiesMicrosporidial spores, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Giardia lamblia trophozoites
BileOpisthorchis spp, Fasciola hepatica
Liver aspirates Entamoeba histolytica
Cyst aspirates*Echinococcus spp
SputumStrongyloides stercoralis/Paragonimus spp, Cryptosporidium spp
Cerebrospinal fluidAcanthamoeba spp/Naegleria fowleri
Corneal scrapesAcanthamoeba spp
Contact lens fluidAcanthamoeba spp
Lymph node biopsiesToxoplasma
Cutaneous ulcersLeishmania spp
Bone marrowLeishmania
Splenic aspiratesLeishmania
Liver biopsiesLeishmania
Muscle biopsy Trichinella spiralis
Urine Schistosoma haematobium
High vaginal swabs Trichomonas vaginalis
Blood filmsPlasmodium, microfilariae, babesia, trypanosoma