Table 4

Histopathological features of early and late phases of chronic rejection

StructureEarly chronic rejectionLate chronic rejection
Interlobular bile ducts, <60 μmSenescence/atrophy affecting the majority of small ducts, but <50% duct lossDuct loss in ⩾50% of portal tracts and senescence of remaining ducts
Hepatic venules/perivenular zone 3 hepatocytesMild perivenular fibrosis, ± intimal or luminal inflammationMarked perivenular fibrosis; hepatic vein remodelling, ± inflammation
Hepatic artery branches in interlobular portal tractsMissing interlobular artery in <25% of portal tractsMissing interlobular artery in >25% of portal tracts
Hilar (large) hepatic arteryFoam cell arteriopathy with no significant narrowingFoam cell arteriopathy with luminal narrowing/fibrointimal proliferation
Others“Transition” hepatitis with spotty/lytic hepatocellular necrosisCholestasis, sinusoidal foam cell accumulation
  • Table modified from that published by Demetris et al (2000).48