Table 1

Biological agents by the International Agency for Research on Cancer monograph working group (adapted from Bouvard et al 2)

Group 1 agentCancers for which there is sufficient evidence in humansEstablished mechanistic events
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt lymphoma, immunosuppression-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal type), Hodgkin lymphomaCell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, genomic instability, cell migration
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomaCell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, genomic instability, cell migration
Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16)Carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, oral cavity and oropharynx and tonsilImmortalisation, genomic instability, inhibition of DNA damage response, anti-apoptotic activity
  • NK cells, natural killer cells.