Table 4

Examples of educational interventions used in demand management initiatives

Educational interventionTarget populationDesignOutcome measureFollow-upResultReference
Data feedback, guideline education, face-to-face sessionsCommunityrandomised controlled trial (RCT)Test volumes, test costs6 monthsReduced costs47
Guideline educationCoronary care unitBefore versus afterTest volumes1 yearReduced volumes48
Information technology-linked information
Requestor ‘encouragement’
Data feedback, report-linked informationCommunityRCTTest volumes1 yearReduced volumes16
Data feedback, face-to-face sessionsCommunityBefore versus afterTest volumes2 yearsReduced volumes49
Face-to-face sessions, test restrictionHospitalBefore versus afterTest volumes1 yearReduced volumes50
Face-to-face sessionsHospitalBefore versus afterTest volumes6 monthsReduced volumes14
Test appropriatenessImproved appropriateness
Data feedbackHospitalBefore versus afterTest volumes6 monthsReduced volumes51
Face-to-face sessionsCommunityBefore versus afterTest ratios8 yearsImproved ratios52
Face-to-face sessionsHospitalBefore versus afterTest volumes6 monthsReduced volumes53
Data feedback, guidelinesOutpatientsRCTTest volumes, knowledge8 monthsReduced volumes54
Face-to-face sessionsHospitalBefore versus afterTest volumes6 monthsReduced volumes55
Bulletins
Face-to-face sessionsHospitalCase-control, before versus afterTest appropriateness15 monthsImproved56
GuidelinesAppropriateness
Data feedback
Face-to-face sessions,HospitalCase-control, before versus afterTest volumes2 yearsLimited effect57
Data feedback