Table 1

Positive immunohistochemical labelling for MM versus BMP in cytological and histological studies

MarkerStudy typeBMP (%)MM (%)References; remarks
EMACytology0–2675–10052 53
EMAHistology<10–>5077 for epithelioid MM49. King et al50 reviewed five histology studies, with sensitivity of 74% and 89% specificity for MM. See also Hammar et al9
GLUT-1Cytology0–20∼63–10052 53
IMP3Cytology0–636–7353 57. In two cytology studies, GLUT-1 and IMP3 positivity was also found in 67–100% of secondary squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas53 58
XIAPCytology∼10∼8059–61. XIAP positivity is recorded in ∼33–100% of carcinomas depending on the sites of origin59–61
bd-2Histology03–1149 62. See also King et al50
p53Histology041–6149 50
DesminCytology; histology84–858–1049 63
  • Churg and Galateau-Sallé15 have also reviewed studies on such markers, and they outlined the 5-year survival rates for a series of 55 cases of MMs and ‘atypical mesothelial hyperplasia’ from the Mesopath Group in France, as evaluated by immunolabelling for desmin, EMA and p53, using a 10% rate of cell staining as a boundary point: for desmin, there was a 50% 5-year survival rate for each of <10% versus >10%. For EMA, 5-year survivals were ∼70% for <10% labelling and ∼35% with >10% labelling. For p53, the corresponding rates were ∼75% and 30%.

  • BMP, benign reactive mesothelial proliferation; EMA, epithelial membrane antigen; GLUT-1, glucose transporter-1; IMP3, insulin-like growth factor messenger RNA-binding protein 3; XIAT, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis.