TableĀ 4

Biomarkers from the cadherin family (also known as calcium-dependent adhesion)

MethodNumber of patientsSignificance of success as biomarkerRef
Kidney-specific cadherin (Ksp-cad)102 ccRCC, 46 pRCC, 30 chRCC, 3 cdRCC, 31 ROKsp-cad was expressed almost exclusively in chRCCs (97.7% of cases). Ksp-cad offers a quick, dependable approach for differentiating between RO and chRCCs.44
42 ccRCC, 30 pRCC, 13 chRCC, 20 RO using whole sectionsBy contrast with Mazal et al, 2004, here both chRCC (13/13) and RO (19/20) were positive for Ksp-cad. Ksp-cad not a useful marker for differentiating.67
15 chRCC, 15 RO for mRNA analysis and IHC on TMAs containing 36 chRCC, 41 ROKsp-cad differentiate RO from chRCC. Ksp-cad was present in chRCCs and ROs at mRNA (89% chRCC and 64% RO) and IHC (31/36 chRCCs and 31/41 RO)68
N-Cadherin21 Japanese cases chRCC, ccRCC, RO.chRCC and RO were positive for E-cadherin but not for N-cadherin. All ccRCCs were negative for E-cadherin, and 58% were positive for N-cadherin. Useful to distinguish chRCC from ccRCC but not between chRCC and RO.69
Ep-CAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule)22 chRCC, 17 RO,45 ccRCCExpressed in all chRCC in more than 90% of cells. EpCAM-positive RO (5/17; 29%) had single cell or small cell cluster positivity. The homogeneous EpCAM expression assists to diagnosis chRCC from RO.47
10 each of ccRCC, pRCC, chRCCs, ROEpCAM distinguished between RO and chRCC. RO were negative for EpCAM but positive in 8/10 (80%) of chRCC.64
  • ccRCC, clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pRCC, papillary renal cell carcinoma; chRCC, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma; RO, renal oncocytoma; cdRCC, collecting duct renal cell carcinoma.