Table 2

Incidence of upstaging

Lymph node revealing solutionFindings
Acetone252/34 (5.9%) upstaged from pN1 to pN2*
2/80 (2.5%) upstaged†:
1 upstaged from pN0 to pN1
1 upstaged from pN1 to pN2
Alcohol and xylene173/41 (7.3%) cases upstaged from Dukes’ B to Dukes’ C
GEWF4110/30 (33%) upstaged‡:
4 upstaged from Nx to N1
4 upstaged from N0 to N1
2 upstaged from N1 to N2
GEWF424/30 (13.0%) upstaged—no colorectal cancer cases upstaged§
Alcohol and xylene325/58 (8.6%) upstaged (Dukes’ B to Dukes’ C)
GEWF403/35 (8.6%) upstaged from Dukes’ B to Dukes’ C
Acetone, alcohol and xylene274/15 (26.7%) upstaged:
1 upstaged from pN0 to pN1
3 upstaged from pN1 to pN2
Alcohol and xylene31Stage changed in 2/84 (2.4%) of cases
Alcohol232/10 (20.0%) upstaged from pN1 to pN2
  • *Control group.

  • †Study group.

  • ‡Stage also changed from Nx to N0 in eight cases.

  • §Upstaged one breast carcinoma and three bladder carcinoma cases.

  • GEWF, glacial acetic acid, ethanol, water and formalin.