Table 3

The effect of lymph node revealing solutions on the size of lymph nodes

Lymph node revealing solutionControl groupStudy groupStatistically significant difference?
Acetone25Average diameter 2.7 mmAverage diameter 2.0 mm
Acetone, IPA and oil26
Acetone and xylene229.7% nodes ≤2 mm,
10% metastatic nodes ≤2 mm
83.6% nodes ≤2 mm
0.6% metastatic nodes ≤2 mm
Acetone, alcohol and xylene184.8% nodes <5 mm
100% metastatic nodes >5 mm
89% nodes <5 mm
40% metastatic nodes <5 mm
Acetone, alcohol and xylene2750% nodes <1 mm
82% nodes <2 mm
83% metastatic nodes <3 mm
In both groups, 75% metastatic nodes <2 mm
Acetone, alcohol and xylene28
Alcohol2388.6% nodes ≤2 mm
78.6% metastatic nodes ≤2 mm
Alcohol29
Alcohol3375.5% metastatic nodes <5 mm
24.5% metastatic nodes >5 mm
Alcohol1949.5% nodes <4 mm
14.8% metastatic nodes <4 mm
77.9% nodes <4 mm
32.6% metastatic nodes <4 mm
Alcohol and xylene31
Alcohol and xylene32
Alcohol and xylene21
Alcohol and xylene1777% of metastatic nodes ≤5 mm
In 7 cases metastases only found in nodes ≤5 mm
Alcohol and xylene2094% nodes ≤5 mm
6% nodes >6 mm
71.8% metastatic nodes ≤5 mm
GEWF42Mean diameter 6.8 mm (±4.13)Mean diameter 4.2 mm (±3.46)Yes (p<0.01)
GEWF36Average diameter of metastatic nodes 7 mm (±4 mm)
41% nodes ≤5 mm
Average diameter of metastatic nodes 5 mm (±2 mm)
60% nodes ≤5 mm
Yes (0.046)
GEWF41Diameter 0.5–7.0 mm
GEWF40Mean diameter 0.429 mm (minimum 0.1 mm)
All nodes >0.9 mm identified by standard technique
Mean diameter metastatic nodes 0.568 mm
26% nodes <5 mm identified by standard practice
55.3% metastatic nodes ≤5 mm
Mean diameter 0.268 mm (0.2–0.9 mm)
Mean diameter metastatic nodes 0.35 mm
Yes (p<0.000001)
GEWF39Median diameter non-metastatic nodes 6 mm
Median diameter metastatic nodes 9 mm
Median diameter non-metastatic nodes 4 mm
Median diameter metastatic nodes 6 mm
Yes (p<0.001)
Yes (p<0.001)
GEWF*3586% nodes (246/286) <3 mm
11.5% nodes (33/286) 3–6 mm
1.4% nodes (4/286) >6 mm
6 metastatic nodes <3 mm (5 from neoadjuvant therapy cases)
GEWF3Mean diameter 4.3 mmMean diameter 2.5 mm
GEWF44Mean diameter 2.6 mm (1–15 mm)Mean diameter 2.1 mm (1– 4 mm)No (p>0.11)
  • *Only assessed 30.5% of cases in the study group.

  • GEWF, glacial acetic acid, ethanol, water and formalin.