Table 2

Types and clinical use of anti-TGF-β/TGF-βR targeted therapies

DrugType, target and refsDisease, stage and refs
Fresolimumab/GC-1008mAb against TGF-β1,-2,-365Breast cancer (with radiotherapy, Phase I), RCC and malignant melanoma (Phase II)65 66
Trabedersen/AP12009ASO against TGF-β1 mRNA53CRC, pancreatic carcinoma and malignant melanoma, NSCLC (Phase I/II)53
Belagenpumatucel-L/Lucanix;ASO (antisense gene-modified allogeneic tumour cell vaccine) against TGF-β2 mRNA53 66NSCLC (Phase II)67
LY2157299TGFβR1 serine/threonine kinase inhibitor68HCC (Phase II), pancreatic cancer (with gemcitabine, Phase I/II)66 68
  • ASO, antisense oligonucleotides; CRC, colorectal carcinoma; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; RCC, renal cell carcinoma; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; mAb, monoclonal antibody.