Table 1

Examples of actionable genes for solid tumours

Tumour typeGenesAbnormalityDrugs/indication
Non-small cell lung cancerEGFRActivating mutationResponse to EGFR TKI* treatment
ALKTranslocationsResponse to crizotinib treatment
MelanomaBRAFActivating mutationResponse to vemurafenib treatment
KITActivating mutationResponse to imatinib treatment
GISTKITActivating mutationResponse to imatinib treatment
Colorectal cancerKRASActivating mutationResistance to anti-EGFR treatment
NRASActivating mutationResistance to anti-EGFR treatment
BRAFActivating mutationPoor prognosis and possible resistance to anti-EGFR treatment
Breast cancerERBB2 (HER2)AmplificationResponse to trastuzumab or lapatinib treatment
BRCA1/2MutationResponse to PARP inhibitors
Ovarian cancerBRCA1/2MutationResponse to PARP inhibitors
  • *EGFR TKI—tyrosine kinase inhibitors active against EGFR, such as gefitinib and erlotinib.