Table 4

Immunophenotype outliers with benign diagnosis and negative for lymphoma on follow-up: histological and clinical features

Reactive pattern/diagnosisIS TRAAI INFF/U (years)F/U LYM
Kappa:lambda ratio
>3:1 or <1:1
 Lymphocyte K:L <1:1
 Gate K:L >3:1
4111SD (n=1)224.2 (1–7)
 Large cell K:L <1:1
 Gate K:L >3:1
11111AH (n=1), KD (n=1), CD (n=1), GL/IFXN (n=2)352.8 (1 month–12 years)
CD10/19 outliers*
 Lymphocyte gate52HIV-LA (n=2)413.6 (2–6)
 Large cell gate511HIV-LA (n=1)324.8 (2–7)
CD5/19 outliers*
 Lymphocyte gate4124.2 (1–9)
 Large cell gate23SD (n=1)124 (1–8)
CD4:CD8 >10:1/<1:1
 CD4:CD8 <1:1
 (lowest 10)
3221KD (n=2), CD (n=1), GL (n=1), HIV-LA (n=1)543.3 (2 months–9 years)
 CD4:CD8 >10:1
 (top 10)
26SD (n=1)724.6 (1–8)
CD7 loss outliers*
16112LG (n=1), HIV-LA (n=1)542.5 (4 months–7 years)
  • *Outlier defined as greater than 1.5 times the IQR above the third quartile. One overlapping case between kappa:lambda and CD10, one between kappa:lambda and CD5, one between kappa:lambda lymphocyte gate (LG) and large cell gate (LCG).

  • Clinical acronyms: AI INF, autoimmune or inflammatory disease; F/U LYM, subsequent lymphoma on follow-up; F/U (years), duration of follow-up in years; INFL, inflammatory condition; IS TRA, immunosuppressed or (solid organ or marrow) transplant.

  • Diagnosis/Pattern acronyms: AH, angiomyomatous hamartoma; CD, Castleman disease; DL, dermatopathic lymphadenopathy; FL, follicular lysis; GL, granulomatous lymphadenitis; HIV-LA, HIV lymphadenitis; IFXN, infectious lymphadenitis; KD, Kikuchi disease; LG, lipogranulomatosis; Neg, negative; PH, paracortical hyperplasia; PTGC, progressive transformation of germinal centres; RFH, reactive follicular hyperplasia; SD, sarcoidosis.