Table 4

QUADAS 2—assessment of risk of bias and applicability concerns across 25 studies

Study IDRisk of biasApplicability concerns
Case selectionIndex testReference standardFlow and timingCase selectionIndex testReference standard
Al-Janabi et al 40 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Bauer et al 43 LowLowLowHighLowLowLow
Campbell et al 18 UnclearLowLowLowLowLowLow
Al-Janabi et al 41 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Brunelli et al 28 UnclearLowLowLowLowHighLow
Houghton et al 30 HighLowLowLowLowLowLow
Reyes et al 20 LowLowLowLowLowUnclearUnclear
Bauer and Slaw3 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Ordi et al 27 LowHighHighHighLowLowLow
Bucks et al (1)23 HighLowLowLowLowLowLow
Bucks et al (2)23 HighUnclearHighLowLowUnclearUnclear
Arnold et al 24 LowUnclearLowLowLowUnclearLow
Loughrey et al 29 HighLowLowLowLowLowlow
Thrall et al 26 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Shah et al 46 LowLowLowLowLowLowlow
Snead et al 25 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Saco et al 19 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Kent et al 45 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Tabata et al 31 HighLowLowLowLowLowLow
Araújo et al 42 HighLowLowLowLowLowLow
Lee et al 48 LowHighLowHighLowUnclearUnclear
Villa et al 47 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Mukhopadhyay et al 32 HighLowLowLowLowLowLow
Williams et al 6 LowUnclearLowHighLowUnclearLow
Hanna et al 44 LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
  • QUADAS2, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.