Table 1

Characteristics of the 21 included studies with patients with COVID-19

StudyCountryStudy designNAgeDemographicsComorbiditiessCr
(µmol/L)
Male
N (%)
HTN
N (%)
CVD
N (%)
DM
N (%)
CKD
N (%)
Chen et al 35 ChinaRetrospective single-centre27462.0 (44.0–70.0)171 (62.4)93 (33.9)24 (8.8)47 (17.2)4 (1.5)76.0 (58.0–94.0)
Guan et al 36 ChinaMulticentre retrospective109947.0 (35.0–58.0)640 (58.2)165 (15.0)27 (2.5)81 (7.4)9 (0.7)
Yang et al 37 ChinaRetrospective single centre5259.7±13.335 (67.3)5 (9.6)9 (17.3)
Zhou et al 38 ChinaRetrospective two-centre19156.0 (46.0–67.0)119 (62.3)58 (30.4)15 (7.9)36 (18.8)2 (1.0)
Du et al 39 ChinaRetrospective two-centre8565.8±14.262 (72.9)32 (37.6)10 (11.8)19 (22.4)3 (3.5)113.7±149.7
Huang et al 40 ChinaProspective single-centre4149.0 (41.0–58.0)30 (73.2)6 (14.6)6 (14.6)8 (19.5)
Cai et al 41 ChinaRetrospective single-centre29847.5 (33.0–61.0)145 (48.7)47 (15.8)25 (8.4)18 (6.0)
Cheng et al 43 ChinaProspective single-centre70163.0 (50.0–71.0)367 (52.5)74.2 (57.5–85.7)
Lei et al 25 ChinaRetrospective single-centre3455.0 (43.0–63.0)14 (41.2)13 (38.2)7 (20.6)8 (23.5)1
(2.9)
87.0 (37.0–1066.0)
Wang et al 26 ChinaRetrospective single-centre13856.0 (42.0–68.0)75 (54.3)43 (31.2)20 (14.5)14 (10.1)4 (2.9)57.4
(46.6–64.0)
Wang et al 27 ChinaProspective single-centre33969.0 (65.0–76.0)166 (49.0)138 (40.7)53 (15.6)54 (15.9)13 (3.8)72.0 (60.0–87.0)
Hirsch et al 13 USARetrospective multicentre544964.0 (52.0–75.0)3317 (60.9)3037 (55.7)949 (17.4)1797 (33.0)61.0 (50.0–76.0)
Nowak et al 28 PolandRetrospective single-centre16963.7±19.687 (51.5)24 (14.2)4 (2.4)8 (4.7)2 (1.2)
Zheng et al 29 ChinaRetrospective single-centre3466.0 (58.0–76.0)23 (67.6)24 (70.6)4 (11.8)8 (23.5)2 (5.9)
Wang et al 30 ChinaRetrospective single-centre10751.0 (36.0–65.0)57 (53.3)18 (16.8)3 (2.8)3 (2.8)84.0 (67.0–104.0)
Yu et al 31 ChinaProspective multicentre22664.0 (57.0–70.0)139 (61.5)96 (42.5)32 (14.2)47 (20.8)8 (3.5)71.0 (60.0–86.0)
Richardson et al 32 USARetrospective Multicentre570063.0 (52.0–75.0)3437 (60.3)3026 (53.1)966 (16.9)1808 (31.7)268 (4.7)64.2 (49.0–111.6)
Pei et al 23 ChinaRetrospective single-centre33356.3±13.4182 (54.7)107 (32.1)76 (22.8)
Li et al 33 ChinaRetrospective single-centre5461.8±14.534 (63.0)15 (27.8)7 (13.0)7 (13.0)70.0 (57.0–84.0)
Yao et al 17 ChinaRetrospective single-centre10852.0 (37.0–58.0)43 (39.8)16 (14.8)4 (3.7)5 (4.6)79.6 (67.1–95.1)
Qiu et al 34 ChinaRetrospective two-centre10443.0±7.549 (47.1)66.1±17.9
  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; sCr, serum creatinine.