Table 1

Common causes of AI

Primary AI
AutoimmuneIsolated, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome types 1 and 2
InfectionTuberculosis, HIV, fungal, viral
OthersBilateral adrenal haemorrhage, adrenal metastasis, adrenal infiltration, bilateral adrenalectomy, drug induced
GeneticAdrenoleukodystrophy, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insensitivity syndromes
Secondary AI
Space occupying lesions/trauma/surgeryPituitary tumours, trauma, surgery, irradiation
Infection or infiltration affecting anterior pituitary, pituitary apoplexy, Sheehan’s syndrome, drugs
Tertiary AI
Space occupying lesions/trauma/surgeryHypothalamic tumours, trauma, surgery, irradiation
Drug inducedGlucocorticoid, piates
  • AI, adrenal insufficiency.