Table 2

Adaptation of established and novel markers to measure LDL-cholesterol8

Friedewald equationCalculationOnly for TG <400 mg/dL (<4.52 mmol/L) and fasting samplesRoutine
Martin/Hopkins equationCalculationOnly for TG <400 mg/dL (<4.52 mmol/L) and fasting samples
(With extended equation of additional 240 cells can be used for TG up to 9.04 mmol/L)
Sampson equationCalculationOnly for TG <800 mg/dL (<9.03 mmol/L)Routine
Direct LDL-CHomogeneous enzyme assayInaccurate for some dyslipidaemic samplesRoutine
LDL-PNMRComplex instrumentationReference lab
VAPHigh TG samples disturb lipoprotein isolationReference lab
DMSComplex sample preparation and analysisReference lab
Direct sd-LDL-CHomogeneous enzyme assayThis method selectively decomposes d <1.044 kg/L lipoproteinsFDA approved but not yet widely available
LDL-TGHomogeneous enzyme assayUnder development
LDL-SMMSComplex sample preparation and analysisUnder development
  • DMS, differential ion mobility spectrometry; FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MS, mass spectrometry; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; TG, triglycerides; VAP, vertical auto profile.